The Five Classical French Mother Sauces: Velouté

The term “mother sauce” refers to any one of five basic sauces, which are the starting points for making various secondary sauces.  The five mother sauces:

  • Béchamel
  • Velouté
  • Espagnole
  • Hollandaise
  • Tomate

Velouté is another simple mother sauce.  It is made by thickening white stock with roux and then simmering.  This sauce is then flavoured and the foundation for numerous sauces.  The two most important sauces derived from velouté are sauce allemande and sauce suprême.  Sauce allemande is finished with egg yolks and mushroom cooking liquid, while sauce suprême is finished with mushroom cooking liquid, heavy cream and butter.  These sauces are usually flavoured additionally to make different sauces.

Velouté

5 Cups White Stock (Chicken, Veal, or Fish)

2 Ounces Butter

¼ Cup Flour

Simmer stock in a 3 quart saucepan.  In a second saucepan melt the butter.  Add the flour.  Stir the butter and flour over medium heat for approximately two minutes or until the flour has a toasty scent.  Remove from heat and cool slightly.

Whisk the stock into the roux.  Return the stock to heat and bring back to simmer whisking continuously.  Once sauce return to a simmer lower heat, cook sauce gently for one hour skimming off the skin that forms on the surface.

Strain the velouté.  Stir until it cools.

Sauce Suprême

1 Quart Sauce Velouté

1 Quart White Stock (Chicken, Veal, or Fish)

1 Cup of Mushroom Cooking Liquid *

1 Cup of Heavy Cream or Crème Fraîche

3 Ounces Butter

Combine all ingredients and bring to a simmer.  Lower heat and reduce by 2/3, approximately one quart.  Skim off fat during reduction.  Finish sauce by stirring in 1 cup of heavy cream and 3 ounces of butter.

Sauce Allemande

5 Egg Yolks

2 Cups White Stock (Chicken, Veal, or Fish)

1 Cup of Mushroom Cooking Liquid *

1 Tablespoon Lemon Juice

1 Quart Hot Sauce Velouté

4 Ounces Butter

Whisk together egg yolks, white stock, mushroom cooking liquid, and lemon juice.  Add to hot Sauce Velouté and whisk returning to heat.  Reduce sauce by one-third, approximately one quart.  Whisk 4 ounces cold butter into the sauce.

* Mushroom Cooking Liquid

Is prepared by cooking mushroom for 15 minutes in a covered pot with an equal amount of water.  While cultivated button mushrooms work, as with all cooking adding more exotic wild mushroom will make a more flavorful broth.

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