About Emulsified Sauces

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  • Made by combining two normally incompatible liquids through the incorporation of a binding or emulsifying agent.
  • Egg Yolks: Classically most common emulsifying agent.
  • Sabayon: Egg yolks and flavoring components whisked into a foamy mixture over a hot water bath until they are thick and airy.  Clarified butter is then added in a steady stream and whisked until smooth.
  • Clarified Butter: Butter that has been slowly melted, allowing most of the water to evaporate and the milk solids to separate and settle in the bottom of the pan.
  • Warm emulsified sauces will break or curdle if not prepared or held properly. Ideal temperature 120 degrees (49 degrees Celsius)
  • Possible reasons for failure:
    • The sabayon was I sufficiently cooked.
    • The sabayon was overcooked.
    • Clarified butter was incorporated too quickly.
    • Excessive heat made the butter separate from the yolks.
  • If sauce broke, ways to restabalize:
    • Beat a few drops of water into the sauce, working it in from the bottom inner edge of the bowl and using a small wire whisk gradually bring the whole sauce into the process.
    • If the sauce broke because it was too hot, add a few drops of cold water.
    • If the sauce broke because it was too cold, add a few drops of warm water.
    • If the sauce appears about to break, dip the bottom of the bowl into ice water bath and whisk constantly until the sauce smooths.
  • Warm Emulsified Sauces
    1. Clarify Butter.
    2. Cook sabayon over hot water bath, whisking constantly.
    3. Slowly add warm clarified butter, whisking constantly.
    4. If too thick, add drops of warm water, whisking constantly.
    5. Season with salt, cayenne and lemon juice.
    6. Hold at 120 degrees (49 degrees Celsius).

Cold Emulsified Sauces

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Mayonnaise: Egg yolks, mustard, oil, acid.

Verte: Mayonnaise and green herbs.

Rémoulade: Mayonnaise, capers, cornichons, chervil, tarragon, parsley, chives; chopped onions and egg are optional.

Gribiche: Mayonnaise, hard cooked eggs,  mustard, cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Chantilly: Two parts mayonnaise and one part whipped cream.

Aioli: Mayonnaise, Garlic, sometimes saffron.

Rouille: Mayonnaise, White Bread, Garlic, paprika, saffron.

Andalouse: Mayonnaise, tomato coulis, diced peppers.

Warm Emulsified Sauces

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Hollandaise: Egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice, salt and cayenne pepper.

Mousseline: Three parts Hollandaise and one part whipped cream.

Mortarde: Hollandaise, blood orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest.

Mikado: Hollandaise, mandarin orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest.

Béarnaise: Egg yolks, clarified butter, salt, tarragon, chervil, Reduction Of white wine vinegar, shallots, tarragon, peppercorns.

Foyot or Valois: Béarnaise and meat glaze.

Charon: Béarnaise and tomato concassé.

Paloise: Béarnaise with mint instead of tarragon.

Tyrolienne: Béarnaise with a neutral oil instead of clarified butter.

Béchamel Sauces

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Mornay: Béchamel combined with Gruyère cheese and egg yolks.

Crème: Béchamel with heavy cream and lemon juice.

Soubise: Onions sweated in butter and added to Béchamel.

Smitane: Classically but no longer made from Béchamel. Chopped onions sweated in butter, moistened with white wine and reduced; sour cream added.

 

French White Sauces

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Supréme: Chicken velouté combined with cream and seasoned.

Ivoire: Sauce Supreme combined with meat glaze.

Albufera: Sauce Ivoire mounted with pimento butter.

Chaud-Froid: Chicken Velouté combined with cream and gelatin.

Bercy: Shallots combined with white wine and reduced with fumet; added to a fish Velouté, finished with chopped parsley.

Aurore: Fish Velouté combined with tomato coulis.

Bretonne: Julienned leeks, celery, onions and mushrooms cooked à l’etuvé, deglazed with white wine and reduced; added to fish Velouté.  Finished with heavy cream or creme fraiche.

Chaud-Froid: Bound Fish Velouté combined with heavy cream and gelatin.

French Brown Sauces

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Espagnole: Basic brown sauce, Beef Stock and roux brun.

Demi-Glacé: Basic brown sauce reduced by one-half.

Bordelaise: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, thyme, bay leaf and red wine combined with a basic brown stock.

Moëlle: Sauce bordelaise Made with white wine and finished with parsley.

Robert: Reduction Of ciselé onions and white wine combined with thickened Veal stock and tomato paste, mounted with Dijon mustard.

Charcuterie: Sauce Robert with cornichon julienne.

Chasseur: Sautéed mushrooms and shallots flambéed with cognac, deglazed with white wine and combined with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé, finished with a bit of tomato, tarragon and chervil.

Diable: Reduction Of cisele shallots, peppercorns, white wine and white wine vinegar added to a brown stock basic sauce, finished with chervil and tarragon.

Bercy: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, bay leaf, thyme and white wine with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé.  Finished with parsley or tarragon.

Madere: Reduced Madeira wine combined with Demi-glacé, mounted with butter and seasoned.

Financier: Sauce Madere with truffle juice.

Perigueux: Sauce Madere with truffle juice and chopped truffles.

Piquante: Reduction Of shallots, white wine, and white wine vinegar combined with Demi-glacé or thickened Veal stock; finished with sliced cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Milanese: Sautéed mushrooms julienne, hamand tongue, deglazed with Madeira; reduced and combined with thickened Veal stock.

Poivrade: Mirepoix Of carrots, onions, thyme, parsley and bay leaves sautéed and deglazed with vinegar. Reduced to a glaze.  Singer combined with brown game stock; cooked one hour with peppercorns and then strained.

Chevreuil: Sauce Poivrade combined with red wine and reduced; finished with cayenne pepper.

Diane: Strongly flavored Poivrade combined with whipped cream.

Grand Veneur: Five parts Poivrade to one part currant jelly and one part heavy cream.

Stocks & Sauces Terminology

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Bouquet Garni: Fresh thyme, parsley stems, bay leaf, a few peppercorns tied together in leek greens.

Deglaze ( Déglacer): To loosen sucs from the bottom of a roasting pan using liquid: water, stock, vinegar, wine or juice.

Dégorger: To soak bones to remove blood to help produce a clearer, cleaner stock.

Degrease (Dégraisser): To remove grease from the top of a stock or sauce with a ladle or metal spoon.

Mirepoix: Equal parts of onions and carrots uniformly Cut, or 50% onions, 25% carrots, 25% celery or equal parts onions, carrots and celery.

Moisten (Mouiller): To Add water to bones and aromatics to produce a stock.

Mother Sauce (Sauce Mères): Group Of basic sauces of the Classical French repertoire.

Mount, to (Monter): Swirl in butter or other emulsifying agent to enrich the flavor and texture, gives a glossy finish.

Pass (Passer): To strain or pass a stock through a chinois.

Plug (Tamponner): To dot the top of a sauce with butter to prevent the formation of a film.

Reduce (Réduir): To boil a stock or sauce until the volume is reduced.

Remoisten (Remouillage): To Add water to cooked bones to extract their maximum flavor.

Roast (Rôtir): To cook in direct, radiant heat in the dry atmosphere of a preheated oven.

Simmer (Frémir): To cook gently so bubbles just break the surface.

Skim (écumer): To remove coagulated blood and impurities from a stock through skimming them off the top with a ladle or skimmer.

Sucs: Caramelized proteins that form on the bottom of a pan as ingredients are browned.

Sweat (Suer): To cook vegetables in a small amount of fat so that the ingredients cook in their own juices without taking on any color.

Winnow (Vanner): To stir a stock or sauce, either while it is cooking or in an ice bath, to facilitate cooking or cooling.