Béchamel Sauces

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Mornay: Béchamel combined with Gruyère cheese and egg yolks.

Crème: Béchamel with heavy cream and lemon juice.

Soubise: Onions sweated in butter and added to Béchamel.

Smitane: Classically but no longer made from Béchamel. Chopped onions sweated in butter, moistened with white wine and reduced; sour cream added.

 

French White Sauces

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Supréme: Chicken velouté combined with cream and seasoned.

Ivoire: Sauce Supreme combined with meat glaze.

Albufera: Sauce Ivoire mounted with pimento butter.

Chaud-Froid: Chicken Velouté combined with cream and gelatin.

Bercy: Shallots combined with white wine and reduced with fumet; added to a fish Velouté, finished with chopped parsley.

Aurore: Fish Velouté combined with tomato coulis.

Bretonne: Julienned leeks, celery, onions and mushrooms cooked à l’etuvé, deglazed with white wine and reduced; added to fish Velouté.  Finished with heavy cream or creme fraiche.

Chaud-Froid: Bound Fish Velouté combined with heavy cream and gelatin.

French Brown Sauces

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Espagnole: Basic brown sauce, Beef Stock and roux brun.

Demi-Glacé: Basic brown sauce reduced by one-half.

Bordelaise: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, thyme, bay leaf and red wine combined with a basic brown stock.

Moëlle: Sauce bordelaise Made with white wine and finished with parsley.

Robert: Reduction Of ciselé onions and white wine combined with thickened Veal stock and tomato paste, mounted with Dijon mustard.

Charcuterie: Sauce Robert with cornichon julienne.

Chasseur: Sautéed mushrooms and shallots flambéed with cognac, deglazed with white wine and combined with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé, finished with a bit of tomato, tarragon and chervil.

Diable: Reduction Of cisele shallots, peppercorns, white wine and white wine vinegar added to a brown stock basic sauce, finished with chervil and tarragon.

Bercy: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, bay leaf, thyme and white wine with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé.  Finished with parsley or tarragon.

Madere: Reduced Madeira wine combined with Demi-glacé, mounted with butter and seasoned.

Financier: Sauce Madere with truffle juice.

Perigueux: Sauce Madere with truffle juice and chopped truffles.

Piquante: Reduction Of shallots, white wine, and white wine vinegar combined with Demi-glacé or thickened Veal stock; finished with sliced cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Milanese: Sautéed mushrooms julienne, hamand tongue, deglazed with Madeira; reduced and combined with thickened Veal stock.

Poivrade: Mirepoix Of carrots, onions, thyme, parsley and bay leaves sautéed and deglazed with vinegar. Reduced to a glaze.  Singer combined with brown game stock; cooked one hour with peppercorns and then strained.

Chevreuil: Sauce Poivrade combined with red wine and reduced; finished with cayenne pepper.

Diane: Strongly flavored Poivrade combined with whipped cream.

Grand Veneur: Five parts Poivrade to one part currant jelly and one part heavy cream.

Stocks & Sauces Terminology

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Bouquet Garni: Fresh thyme, parsley stems, bay leaf, a few peppercorns tied together in leek greens.

Deglaze ( Déglacer): To loosen sucs from the bottom of a roasting pan using liquid: water, stock, vinegar, wine or juice.

Dégorger: To soak bones to remove blood to help produce a clearer, cleaner stock.

Degrease (Dégraisser): To remove grease from the top of a stock or sauce with a ladle or metal spoon.

Mirepoix: Equal parts of onions and carrots uniformly Cut, or 50% onions, 25% carrots, 25% celery or equal parts onions, carrots and celery.

Moisten (Mouiller): To Add water to bones and aromatics to produce a stock.

Mother Sauce (Sauce Mères): Group Of basic sauces of the Classical French repertoire.

Mount, to (Monter): Swirl in butter or other emulsifying agent to enrich the flavor and texture, gives a glossy finish.

Pass (Passer): To strain or pass a stock through a chinois.

Plug (Tamponner): To dot the top of a sauce with butter to prevent the formation of a film.

Reduce (Réduir): To boil a stock or sauce until the volume is reduced.

Remoisten (Remouillage): To Add water to cooked bones to extract their maximum flavor.

Roast (Rôtir): To cook in direct, radiant heat in the dry atmosphere of a preheated oven.

Simmer (Frémir): To cook gently so bubbles just break the surface.

Skim (écumer): To remove coagulated blood and impurities from a stock through skimming them off the top with a ladle or skimmer.

Sucs: Caramelized proteins that form on the bottom of a pan as ingredients are browned.

Sweat (Suer): To cook vegetables in a small amount of fat so that the ingredients cook in their own juices without taking on any color.

Winnow (Vanner): To stir a stock or sauce, either while it is cooking or in an ice bath, to facilitate cooking or cooling.

Your Knife Roll

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Chef’s (or French) Knife: Used for chopping, slicing, dicindand filleting. Blade 6-14 inches.

Utility Knife: Used for coring vegetables and slicing tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables.

Boning Knife: Used to bone various meats and poultry.  Blade is 6-7 inches and curved.

Fillet Knife: Used to fillet fish.  Flexible blade.

Slicing Knife: Used for slicing large cuts of meat or fish. Blade 12-16 inches.

Paring Knife: Small blade Used for peeling and turning vegetables.

Serrated Knife: Bevel edge blade for slicing breads.

Honing Steel: Hardened, ridged rod to keep blade aligned.

Sharpening Stone: Stone in a variety of grits used to sharpen knives.

Restaurant French Cooking Vessels

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Materials:

  • Copper: Most even heat conductor.
  • Aluminum: Excellent heat conductor.
  • Cast Iron: Extremely strong and heavy metal used for Dutch ovens, griddles, frying pans, and skillets.  Relatively inexpensive and long lasting.
  • Black Steel: Inexpensive and heat conducts quickly. Often used for frying pans, crepe pans, and woks.
  • Stainless Steel: Excellent non-reactivate metal, but extremely poor heat conductor.
  • Enamelware: Inexpensive, but a poor heat conductor and food tends to stick.
  • Nonstick: Useful, however the coating tends to wear off quickly.

Batterie de Cuisine (Pots and Pans):

  • Marmite: A stockpot 2.5 – 40 gallons
    • Marmite Haute: Tall
    • Marmite Basse: Shorter
  • Poêle: Shallow Pan used for cooking omelettes, crepes, and potatoes. American version is a cast iron skillet.
  • Rondeau: Large round pan with handles, used for braising and stewing.  5 – 6 inches deep.  12 – 20 Quarts.
  • Rôtissoire: Large rectangular pan with low to medium high sides and two handles used for roasting meats.
  • Russe: Saucepan with a single long handle.
  • Sauteuse: Round, shallow pan with a single long handle and sloping sides used for sauté.
  • Sautoir or Plat a Sauter: Large, round, shallow pan with a single long handle and straight sides that is used to sauté or make sauces.
  • Sheet Pan: Rectangular pan with shallow sides.
    • Full Sheet Pan: 18 x 26.
    • Half Sheet Pan: 18 x 13.
  • Hotel Pan: Rectangular stainless steel pan with a lip designed to rest in a steam table or rack. Used to cook, ice, store or serve foods.
    • Full Hotel Pan: 12 3/4 x 20 3/4, 2, 4, or 6 inches deep.
    • Half Hotel Pan: 1/2 the size of a Full.
    • Third Hotel Pan: 1/3 the size of a Full.
    • Fourth Hotel Pan: 1/4 the size of a Full.
  • Square Boys: Also known as steam table pans. 6 7/8 x 6 1/4.  2 1/2, 4 or 6 inches deep.
  • Sizzle Pans: Oval platters with raised edges used to cook or finish items in the oven or salamander. 9 – 13 1/2 inches.

Cooking Method: Dans un Blanc

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Definition: Cooking in a water, flour, oil, lemon, salt solution for ingredients that easily discolor such as artichokes, salsify, offal and Veal.

  • 2 Quarts, 4 ounces (2 liters)
  • 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) canola oil
  • 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) fresh lemon juice
  • 3/4 ounce (21 grams) all-purpose flour
  • 1/3 ounce (10 grams) coarse salt

In this example we are cooking four artichokes or 2 pounds of salsify, offal or Veal.

Combine water, oil, lemon juice in a saucepan over medium heat.  Whisk in flour and salt.  Add ingredient to be cooked.  Over high heat bring to a boil. Lower heat slightly. Cook at low boil for 30 minutes.  Remove from heat.  Allow item to stand in liquid one hour.