Chadō (茶道): The Way Of Tea

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The Japanese tea ceremony, also called the Way of Tea, is a Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of matcha (抹茶), powdered green tea.

In Japanese, it is called chanoyu (茶の湯) or sadō, chadō (茶道), while the manner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance, is called (o)temae ([お]手前; [お]点前).  Zen Buddhism was a primary influence in the development of the Japanese tea ceremony. Much less commonly, Japanese tea practice uses leaf tea, primarily sencha, in which case it is known in Japanese as senchadō (煎茶道, the way of sencha) as opposed to chanoyu or chadō.

Preservation Techniques

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Definition: Keeping Of perishable foods in a consumable form for a long period of time.

Dehydration: Draws moisture from the product and eliminates any medium for bacteria. Used for fruits, herbs, beans and other vegetables.

Alcohol: Alcohol kills active microorganisms. Used for fruit.

Sugar: Density of sugar retards the growth of enzymes due to a lower ratio of water. Usually 60% sugar in preserves. Used with fruit.

Liquid Cure / Brine: Submersion Of Food in a brine, an intense solution of water combined with salt and sometimes additional spices.

Pickling / Fermentation: Preserves Food by impregnating it with acid.  Vinegar is common and creates an environment that encourages fermentation. The item is generally precooked or soaked in a brine to draw out excess moisture.

Dry Cure / Salt: Surfaces are rubbed with salt and then left to cure. Usually a preliminary step to smoking, as are liquid cures.

Cold Smoking: Item is first cured, usually in a brine. Smoke is applied at a temperature bellow 100 degrees (38 degrees Celsius). Product remains uncooked. Example Scottish smoked salmon.

Hot Smoking: Cooks the product with the heat of the smoke. Item is usually cured first. Chicken, turkey, pork and trout are often hot smoked.

Pasteurization: Rapidly cooling liquid that has been heated to 180 degrees. Primarily used for milk and cream.

Sterilization: The container is sterilized before it is filled. Filled container is then brought to a high temperature. Safe for long term storage. Primarily used for canning fruits and vegetables.

Refrigeration: Enzyme activity is slowed at 32-38 degrees. Humidity level must be controlled.

Freezing: Holding temperature must be below 0 degrees. Changes the texture of the thawed product due to water evaporation.

Quick Freezing: Products are immediately cooled to -40 degrees and held at -4 degrees.

Freeze Drying: Total elimination of all moisture, repeated freezing and dehydrating. Product does not require refrigeration. Used for coffee, potatoes.

Sealing & Coating: Confit is a classic example. Today it is used more for taste than preservation.

Vacuum Pack: aka cryovac.  Eliminates all air from a plastic bag or container.

About Emulsified Sauces

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  • Made by combining two normally incompatible liquids through the incorporation of a binding or emulsifying agent.
  • Egg Yolks: Classically most common emulsifying agent.
  • Sabayon: Egg yolks and flavoring components whisked into a foamy mixture over a hot water bath until they are thick and airy.  Clarified butter is then added in a steady stream and whisked until smooth.
  • Clarified Butter: Butter that has been slowly melted, allowing most of the water to evaporate and the milk solids to separate and settle in the bottom of the pan.
  • Warm emulsified sauces will break or curdle if not prepared or held properly. Ideal temperature 120 degrees (49 degrees Celsius)
  • Possible reasons for failure:
    • The sabayon was I sufficiently cooked.
    • The sabayon was overcooked.
    • Clarified butter was incorporated too quickly.
    • Excessive heat made the butter separate from the yolks.
  • If sauce broke, ways to restabalize:
    • Beat a few drops of water into the sauce, working it in from the bottom inner edge of the bowl and using a small wire whisk gradually bring the whole sauce into the process.
    • If the sauce broke because it was too hot, add a few drops of cold water.
    • If the sauce broke because it was too cold, add a few drops of warm water.
    • If the sauce appears about to break, dip the bottom of the bowl into ice water bath and whisk constantly until the sauce smooths.
  • Warm Emulsified Sauces
    1. Clarify Butter.
    2. Cook sabayon over hot water bath, whisking constantly.
    3. Slowly add warm clarified butter, whisking constantly.
    4. If too thick, add drops of warm water, whisking constantly.
    5. Season with salt, cayenne and lemon juice.
    6. Hold at 120 degrees (49 degrees Celsius).

Cold Emulsified Sauces

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Mayonnaise: Egg yolks, mustard, oil, acid.

Verte: Mayonnaise and green herbs.

Rémoulade: Mayonnaise, capers, cornichons, chervil, tarragon, parsley, chives; chopped onions and egg are optional.

Gribiche: Mayonnaise, hard cooked eggs,  mustard, cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Chantilly: Two parts mayonnaise and one part whipped cream.

Aioli: Mayonnaise, Garlic, sometimes saffron.

Rouille: Mayonnaise, White Bread, Garlic, paprika, saffron.

Andalouse: Mayonnaise, tomato coulis, diced peppers.

Warm Emulsified Sauces

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Hollandaise: Egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice, salt and cayenne pepper.

Mousseline: Three parts Hollandaise and one part whipped cream.

Mortarde: Hollandaise, blood orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest.

Mikado: Hollandaise, mandarin orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest.

Béarnaise: Egg yolks, clarified butter, salt, tarragon, chervil, Reduction Of white wine vinegar, shallots, tarragon, peppercorns.

Foyot or Valois: Béarnaise and meat glaze.

Charon: Béarnaise and tomato concassé.

Paloise: Béarnaise with mint instead of tarragon.

Tyrolienne: Béarnaise with a neutral oil instead of clarified butter.

Béchamel Sauces

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Mornay: Béchamel combined with Gruyère cheese and egg yolks.

Crème: Béchamel with heavy cream and lemon juice.

Soubise: Onions sweated in butter and added to Béchamel.

Smitane: Classically but no longer made from Béchamel. Chopped onions sweated in butter, moistened with white wine and reduced; sour cream added.

 

French White Sauces

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Supréme: Chicken velouté combined with cream and seasoned.

Ivoire: Sauce Supreme combined with meat glaze.

Albufera: Sauce Ivoire mounted with pimento butter.

Chaud-Froid: Chicken Velouté combined with cream and gelatin.

Bercy: Shallots combined with white wine and reduced with fumet; added to a fish Velouté, finished with chopped parsley.

Aurore: Fish Velouté combined with tomato coulis.

Bretonne: Julienned leeks, celery, onions and mushrooms cooked à l’etuvé, deglazed with white wine and reduced; added to fish Velouté.  Finished with heavy cream or creme fraiche.

Chaud-Froid: Bound Fish Velouté combined with heavy cream and gelatin.