Chadō (茶道): The Way Of Tea

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The Japanese tea ceremony, also called the Way of Tea, is a Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of matcha (抹茶), powdered green tea.

In Japanese, it is called chanoyu (茶の湯) or sadō, chadō (茶道), while the manner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance, is called (o)temae ([お]手前; [お]点前).  Zen Buddhism was a primary influence in the development of the Japanese tea ceremony. Much less commonly, Japanese tea practice uses leaf tea, primarily sencha, in which case it is known in Japanese as senchadō (煎茶道, the way of sencha) as opposed to chanoyu or chadō.

Preservation Techniques

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Definition: Keeping Of perishable foods in a consumable form for a long period of time.

Dehydration: Draws moisture from the product and eliminates any medium for bacteria. Used for fruits, herbs, beans and other vegetables.

Alcohol: Alcohol kills active microorganisms. Used for fruit.

Sugar: Density of sugar retards the growth of enzymes due to a lower ratio of water. Usually 60% sugar in preserves. Used with fruit.

Liquid Cure / Brine: Submersion Of Food in a brine, an intense solution of water combined with salt and sometimes additional spices.

Pickling / Fermentation: Preserves Food by impregnating it with acid.  Vinegar is common and creates an environment that encourages fermentation. The item is generally precooked or soaked in a brine to draw out excess moisture.

Dry Cure / Salt: Surfaces are rubbed with salt and then left to cure. Usually a preliminary step to smoking, as are liquid cures.

Cold Smoking: Item is first cured, usually in a brine. Smoke is applied at a temperature bellow 100 degrees (38 degrees Celsius). Product remains uncooked. Example Scottish smoked salmon.

Hot Smoking: Cooks the product with the heat of the smoke. Item is usually cured first. Chicken, turkey, pork and trout are often hot smoked.

Pasteurization: Rapidly cooling liquid that has been heated to 180 degrees. Primarily used for milk and cream.

Sterilization: The container is sterilized before it is filled. Filled container is then brought to a high temperature. Safe for long term storage. Primarily used for canning fruits and vegetables.

Refrigeration: Enzyme activity is slowed at 32-38 degrees. Humidity level must be controlled.

Freezing: Holding temperature must be below 0 degrees. Changes the texture of the thawed product due to water evaporation.

Quick Freezing: Products are immediately cooled to -40 degrees and held at -4 degrees.

Freeze Drying: Total elimination of all moisture, repeated freezing and dehydrating. Product does not require refrigeration. Used for coffee, potatoes.

Sealing & Coating: Confit is a classic example. Today it is used more for taste than preservation.

Vacuum Pack: aka cryovac.  Eliminates all air from a plastic bag or container.

About Emulsified Sauces

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  • Made by combining two normally incompatible liquids through the incorporation of a binding or emulsifying agent.
  • Egg Yolks: Classically most common emulsifying agent.
  • Sabayon: Egg yolks and flavoring components whisked into a foamy mixture over a hot water bath until they are thick and airy.  Clarified butter is then added in a steady stream and whisked until smooth.
  • Clarified Butter: Butter that has been slowly melted, allowing most of the water to evaporate and the milk solids to separate and settle in the bottom of the pan.
  • Warm emulsified sauces will break or curdle if not prepared or held properly. Ideal temperature 120 degrees (49 degrees Celsius)
  • Possible reasons for failure:
    • The sabayon was I sufficiently cooked.
    • The sabayon was overcooked.
    • Clarified butter was incorporated too quickly.
    • Excessive heat made the butter separate from the yolks.
  • If sauce broke, ways to restabalize:
    • Beat a few drops of water into the sauce, working it in from the bottom inner edge of the bowl and using a small wire whisk gradually bring the whole sauce into the process.
    • If the sauce broke because it was too hot, add a few drops of cold water.
    • If the sauce broke because it was too cold, add a few drops of warm water.
    • If the sauce appears about to break, dip the bottom of the bowl into ice water bath and whisk constantly until the sauce smooths.
  • Warm Emulsified Sauces
    1. Clarify Butter.
    2. Cook sabayon over hot water bath, whisking constantly.
    3. Slowly add warm clarified butter, whisking constantly.
    4. If too thick, add drops of warm water, whisking constantly.
    5. Season with salt, cayenne and lemon juice.
    6. Hold at 120 degrees (49 degrees Celsius).

Cold Emulsified Sauces

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Mayonnaise: Egg yolks, mustard, oil, acid.

Verte: Mayonnaise and green herbs.

Rémoulade: Mayonnaise, capers, cornichons, chervil, tarragon, parsley, chives; chopped onions and egg are optional.

Gribiche: Mayonnaise, hard cooked eggs,  mustard, cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Chantilly: Two parts mayonnaise and one part whipped cream.

Aioli: Mayonnaise, Garlic, sometimes saffron.

Rouille: Mayonnaise, White Bread, Garlic, paprika, saffron.

Andalouse: Mayonnaise, tomato coulis, diced peppers.

Warm Emulsified Sauces

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Hollandaise: Egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice, salt and cayenne pepper.

Mousseline: Three parts Hollandaise and one part whipped cream.

Mortarde: Hollandaise, blood orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest.

Mikado: Hollandaise, mandarin orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest.

Béarnaise: Egg yolks, clarified butter, salt, tarragon, chervil, Reduction Of white wine vinegar, shallots, tarragon, peppercorns.

Foyot or Valois: Béarnaise and meat glaze.

Charon: Béarnaise and tomato concassé.

Paloise: Béarnaise with mint instead of tarragon.

Tyrolienne: Béarnaise with a neutral oil instead of clarified butter.

Béchamel Sauces

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Mornay: Béchamel combined with Gruyère cheese and egg yolks.

Crème: Béchamel with heavy cream and lemon juice.

Soubise: Onions sweated in butter and added to Béchamel.

Smitane: Classically but no longer made from Béchamel. Chopped onions sweated in butter, moistened with white wine and reduced; sour cream added.

 

French White Sauces

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Supréme: Chicken velouté combined with cream and seasoned.

Ivoire: Sauce Supreme combined with meat glaze.

Albufera: Sauce Ivoire mounted with pimento butter.

Chaud-Froid: Chicken Velouté combined with cream and gelatin.

Bercy: Shallots combined with white wine and reduced with fumet; added to a fish Velouté, finished with chopped parsley.

Aurore: Fish Velouté combined with tomato coulis.

Bretonne: Julienned leeks, celery, onions and mushrooms cooked à l’etuvé, deglazed with white wine and reduced; added to fish Velouté.  Finished with heavy cream or creme fraiche.

Chaud-Froid: Bound Fish Velouté combined with heavy cream and gelatin.

French Brown Sauces

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Espagnole: Basic brown sauce, Beef Stock and roux brun.

Demi-Glacé: Basic brown sauce reduced by one-half.

Bordelaise: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, thyme, bay leaf and red wine combined with a basic brown stock.

Moëlle: Sauce bordelaise Made with white wine and finished with parsley.

Robert: Reduction Of ciselé onions and white wine combined with thickened Veal stock and tomato paste, mounted with Dijon mustard.

Charcuterie: Sauce Robert with cornichon julienne.

Chasseur: Sautéed mushrooms and shallots flambéed with cognac, deglazed with white wine and combined with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé, finished with a bit of tomato, tarragon and chervil.

Diable: Reduction Of cisele shallots, peppercorns, white wine and white wine vinegar added to a brown stock basic sauce, finished with chervil and tarragon.

Bercy: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, bay leaf, thyme and white wine with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé.  Finished with parsley or tarragon.

Madere: Reduced Madeira wine combined with Demi-glacé, mounted with butter and seasoned.

Financier: Sauce Madere with truffle juice.

Perigueux: Sauce Madere with truffle juice and chopped truffles.

Piquante: Reduction Of shallots, white wine, and white wine vinegar combined with Demi-glacé or thickened Veal stock; finished with sliced cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Milanese: Sautéed mushrooms julienne, hamand tongue, deglazed with Madeira; reduced and combined with thickened Veal stock.

Poivrade: Mirepoix Of carrots, onions, thyme, parsley and bay leaves sautéed and deglazed with vinegar. Reduced to a glaze.  Singer combined with brown game stock; cooked one hour with peppercorns and then strained.

Chevreuil: Sauce Poivrade combined with red wine and reduced; finished with cayenne pepper.

Diane: Strongly flavored Poivrade combined with whipped cream.

Grand Veneur: Five parts Poivrade to one part currant jelly and one part heavy cream.

Stocks & Sauces Terminology

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Bouquet Garni: Fresh thyme, parsley stems, bay leaf, a few peppercorns tied together in leek greens.

Deglaze ( Déglacer): To loosen sucs from the bottom of a roasting pan using liquid: water, stock, vinegar, wine or juice.

Dégorger: To soak bones to remove blood to help produce a clearer, cleaner stock.

Degrease (Dégraisser): To remove grease from the top of a stock or sauce with a ladle or metal spoon.

Mirepoix: Equal parts of onions and carrots uniformly Cut, or 50% onions, 25% carrots, 25% celery or equal parts onions, carrots and celery.

Moisten (Mouiller): To Add water to bones and aromatics to produce a stock.

Mother Sauce (Sauce Mères): Group Of basic sauces of the Classical French repertoire.

Mount, to (Monter): Swirl in butter or other emulsifying agent to enrich the flavor and texture, gives a glossy finish.

Pass (Passer): To strain or pass a stock through a chinois.

Plug (Tamponner): To dot the top of a sauce with butter to prevent the formation of a film.

Reduce (Réduir): To boil a stock or sauce until the volume is reduced.

Remoisten (Remouillage): To Add water to cooked bones to extract their maximum flavor.

Roast (Rôtir): To cook in direct, radiant heat in the dry atmosphere of a preheated oven.

Simmer (Frémir): To cook gently so bubbles just break the surface.

Skim (écumer): To remove coagulated blood and impurities from a stock through skimming them off the top with a ladle or skimmer.

Sucs: Caramelized proteins that form on the bottom of a pan as ingredients are browned.

Sweat (Suer): To cook vegetables in a small amount of fat so that the ingredients cook in their own juices without taking on any color.

Winnow (Vanner): To stir a stock or sauce, either while it is cooking or in an ice bath, to facilitate cooking or cooling.

Cornpone

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Cornpone vs. Cornbread.

Cornbread baked in a round skillet without dairy or eggs is most accurately referred to as cornpone.  The difference is important.

2½ cups cornmeal
1 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons granulated sugar
1⅔ cups water
¼ cup bacon fat or butter in a pinch

Place a 10-inch cast-iron skillet in your oven and preheat the oven to 475°F.

Mix together the cornmeal, salt, and sugar. Stir in the water.

Place the bacon fat in the hot cast-iron skillet and let it melt. Do it quickly, don’t let it go longer than it takes to barely melt. You don’t want it to burn.

Spoon the cornmeal mixture into the bottom of your pan and spread it out to the edges. The hot fat will bubble up around the sides and start to fry at the edges. Using a spoon, move some of that fat to the center top portion of the cornbread.

Bake the cornpone on the center rack of your oven for 15 minutes. Now for the bit tricky part, bring it out and, using a spatula, flip it over. Slide the pan back in the oven and cook an additional 10 minutes.

The cornpone should be brown with thick, crisp edges.

Serve hot.