French Brown Sauces

1F7180D6-0B43-41B7-AAFB-675A3C0B6C63.jpeg

Espagnole: Basic brown sauce, Beef Stock and roux brun.

Demi-Glacé: Basic brown sauce reduced by one-half.

Bordelaise: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, thyme, bay leaf and red wine combined with a basic brown stock.

Moëlle: Sauce bordelaise Made with white wine and finished with parsley.

Robert: Reduction Of ciselé onions and white wine combined with thickened Veal stock and tomato paste, mounted with Dijon mustard.

Charcuterie: Sauce Robert with cornichon julienne.

Chasseur: Sautéed mushrooms and shallots flambéed with cognac, deglazed with white wine and combined with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé, finished with a bit of tomato, tarragon and chervil.

Diable: Reduction Of cisele shallots, peppercorns, white wine and white wine vinegar added to a brown stock basic sauce, finished with chervil and tarragon.

Bercy: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, bay leaf, thyme and white wine with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé.  Finished with parsley or tarragon.

Madere: Reduced Madeira wine combined with Demi-glacé, mounted with butter and seasoned.

Financier: Sauce Madere with truffle juice.

Perigueux: Sauce Madere with truffle juice and chopped truffles.

Piquante: Reduction Of shallots, white wine, and white wine vinegar combined with Demi-glacé or thickened Veal stock; finished with sliced cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Milanese: Sautéed mushrooms julienne, hamand tongue, deglazed with Madeira; reduced and combined with thickened Veal stock.

Poivrade: Mirepoix Of carrots, onions, thyme, parsley and bay leaves sautéed and deglazed with vinegar. Reduced to a glaze.  Singer combined with brown game stock; cooked one hour with peppercorns and then strained.

Chevreuil: Sauce Poivrade combined with red wine and reduced; finished with cayenne pepper.

Diane: Strongly flavored Poivrade combined with whipped cream.

Grand Veneur: Five parts Poivrade to one part currant jelly and one part heavy cream.

Stocks & Sauces Terminology

8CBE13A1-3A29-4101-90D0-73FE4C4813EC.jpeg

Bouquet Garni: Fresh thyme, parsley stems, bay leaf, a few peppercorns tied together in leek greens.

Deglaze ( Déglacer): To loosen sucs from the bottom of a roasting pan using liquid: water, stock, vinegar, wine or juice.

Dégorger: To soak bones to remove blood to help produce a clearer, cleaner stock.

Degrease (Dégraisser): To remove grease from the top of a stock or sauce with a ladle or metal spoon.

Mirepoix: Equal parts of onions and carrots uniformly Cut, or 50% onions, 25% carrots, 25% celery or equal parts onions, carrots and celery.

Moisten (Mouiller): To Add water to bones and aromatics to produce a stock.

Mother Sauce (Sauce Mères): Group Of basic sauces of the Classical French repertoire.

Mount, to (Monter): Swirl in butter or other emulsifying agent to enrich the flavor and texture, gives a glossy finish.

Pass (Passer): To strain or pass a stock through a chinois.

Plug (Tamponner): To dot the top of a sauce with butter to prevent the formation of a film.

Reduce (Réduir): To boil a stock or sauce until the volume is reduced.

Remoisten (Remouillage): To Add water to cooked bones to extract their maximum flavor.

Roast (Rôtir): To cook in direct, radiant heat in the dry atmosphere of a preheated oven.

Simmer (Frémir): To cook gently so bubbles just break the surface.

Skim (écumer): To remove coagulated blood and impurities from a stock through skimming them off the top with a ladle or skimmer.

Sucs: Caramelized proteins that form on the bottom of a pan as ingredients are browned.

Sweat (Suer): To cook vegetables in a small amount of fat so that the ingredients cook in their own juices without taking on any color.

Winnow (Vanner): To stir a stock or sauce, either while it is cooking or in an ice bath, to facilitate cooking or cooling.

Cornpone

0F197A59-0EEE-4B63-936F-857F1B27220A.jpeg

Cornpone vs. Cornbread.

Cornbread baked in a round skillet without dairy or eggs is most accurately referred to as cornpone.  The difference is important.

2½ cups cornmeal
1 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons granulated sugar
1⅔ cups water
¼ cup bacon fat or butter in a pinch

Place a 10-inch cast-iron skillet in your oven and preheat the oven to 475°F.

Mix together the cornmeal, salt, and sugar. Stir in the water.

Place the bacon fat in the hot cast-iron skillet and let it melt. Do it quickly, don’t let it go longer than it takes to barely melt. You don’t want it to burn.

Spoon the cornmeal mixture into the bottom of your pan and spread it out to the edges. The hot fat will bubble up around the sides and start to fry at the edges. Using a spoon, move some of that fat to the center top portion of the cornbread.

Bake the cornpone on the center rack of your oven for 15 minutes. Now for the bit tricky part, bring it out and, using a spatula, flip it over. Slide the pan back in the oven and cook an additional 10 minutes.

The cornpone should be brown with thick, crisp edges.

Serve hot.

 

Restaurant French Cooking Vessels

EF01D026-ACB9-4EF5-BD80-06955DB7ED41.jpeg

Materials:

  • Copper: Most even heat conductor.
  • Aluminum: Excellent heat conductor.
  • Cast Iron: Extremely strong and heavy metal used for Dutch ovens, griddles, frying pans, and skillets.  Relatively inexpensive and long lasting.
  • Black Steel: Inexpensive and heat conducts quickly. Often used for frying pans, crepe pans, and woks.
  • Stainless Steel: Excellent non-reactivate metal, but extremely poor heat conductor.
  • Enamelware: Inexpensive, but a poor heat conductor and food tends to stick.
  • Nonstick: Useful, however the coating tends to wear off quickly.

Batterie de Cuisine (Pots and Pans):

  • Marmite: A stockpot 2.5 – 40 gallons
    • Marmite Haute: Tall
    • Marmite Basse: Shorter
  • Poêle: Shallow Pan used for cooking omelettes, crepes, and potatoes. American version is a cast iron skillet.
  • Rondeau: Large round pan with handles, used for braising and stewing.  5 – 6 inches deep.  12 – 20 Quarts.
  • Rôtissoire: Large rectangular pan with low to medium high sides and two handles used for roasting meats.
  • Russe: Saucepan with a single long handle.
  • Sauteuse: Round, shallow pan with a single long handle and sloping sides used for sauté.
  • Sautoir or Plat a Sauter: Large, round, shallow pan with a single long handle and straight sides that is used to sauté or make sauces.
  • Sheet Pan: Rectangular pan with shallow sides.
    • Full Sheet Pan: 18 x 26.
    • Half Sheet Pan: 18 x 13.
  • Hotel Pan: Rectangular stainless steel pan with a lip designed to rest in a steam table or rack. Used to cook, ice, store or serve foods.
    • Full Hotel Pan: 12 3/4 x 20 3/4, 2, 4, or 6 inches deep.
    • Half Hotel Pan: 1/2 the size of a Full.
    • Third Hotel Pan: 1/3 the size of a Full.
    • Fourth Hotel Pan: 1/4 the size of a Full.
  • Square Boys: Also known as steam table pans. 6 7/8 x 6 1/4.  2 1/2, 4 or 6 inches deep.
  • Sizzle Pans: Oval platters with raised edges used to cook or finish items in the oven or salamander. 9 – 13 1/2 inches.

Cooking Method: Dans un Blanc

73324875-6A7E-4E2B-805E-21DAA595A21F.jpeg

Definition: Cooking in a water, flour, oil, lemon, salt solution for ingredients that easily discolor such as artichokes, salsify, offal and Veal.

  • 2 Quarts, 4 ounces (2 liters)
  • 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) canola oil
  • 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) fresh lemon juice
  • 3/4 ounce (21 grams) all-purpose flour
  • 1/3 ounce (10 grams) coarse salt

In this example we are cooking four artichokes or 2 pounds of salsify, offal or Veal.

Combine water, oil, lemon juice in a saucepan over medium heat.  Whisk in flour and salt.  Add ingredient to be cooked.  Over high heat bring to a boil. Lower heat slightly. Cook at low boil for 30 minutes.  Remove from heat.  Allow item to stand in liquid one hour.

Vegetable Cooking: A l’etuvé

Definition: Slowly cooks raw vegetables in a covered pan with their own juices, just a touch of fat and salt. Just enough liquid, water or Stock is added to allow the vegetable to exude their own moisture.

  • Place cleaned and cut vegetables in a pan large enough to hold in a single layer.
  • Add the required liquid to come halfway up the vegetable, this may be as little as a couple of tablespoons.
  • Add the desired fat and salt.
  • Fold a piece of parchment paper into a cone by making four folds inward.  Cut off the tip.  Cut cone to fit size of pan.
  • Over high heat bring to a boil.
  • Lower heat to a simmer.
  • If water evaporates too quickly, lower temperature.
  • Cook until vegetables are tender.
  • Taste and adjust salt and pepper.
  • Serve.

Vegetable Cooking: A l’anglaise

7D44344C-6E5D-48A5-B75B-425038BB0DE8.jpeg

Definition: Allows vegetable to be cooked prior to use, then reheated at time of service in a restaurant.

  • Fill large pot with water.
  • Salt to taste of seawater.
  • Over high heat bring to a rolling boil. Do not cover.
  • Add vegetable and cook until barely tender.
  • Drain well.
  • Shock in ice water. This stops the cooking and sets the color.
  • Drain well.
  • Pat dry.
  • Place in a container and cover with plastic film. Refrigerate.
  • To serve: reheat required amount in a small pan with butter and seasonings.
  • Serve immediately.