Cold Emulsified Sauces

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Mayonnaise: Egg yolks, mustard, oil, acid.

Verte: Mayonnaise and green herbs.

Rémoulade: Mayonnaise, capers, cornichons, chervil, tarragon, parsley, chives; chopped onions and egg are optional.

Gribiche: Mayonnaise, hard cooked eggs,  mustard, cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Chantilly: Two parts mayonnaise and one part whipped cream.

Aioli: Mayonnaise, Garlic, sometimes saffron.

Rouille: Mayonnaise, White Bread, Garlic, paprika, saffron.

Andalouse: Mayonnaise, tomato coulis, diced peppers.

Warm Emulsified Sauces

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Hollandaise: Egg yolks, clarified butter, lemon juice, salt and cayenne pepper.

Mousseline: Three parts Hollandaise and one part whipped cream.

Mortarde: Hollandaise, blood orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest.

Mikado: Hollandaise, mandarin orange juice, blanched mandarin orange zest.

Béarnaise: Egg yolks, clarified butter, salt, tarragon, chervil, Reduction Of white wine vinegar, shallots, tarragon, peppercorns.

Foyot or Valois: Béarnaise and meat glaze.

Charon: Béarnaise and tomato concassé.

Paloise: Béarnaise with mint instead of tarragon.

Tyrolienne: Béarnaise with a neutral oil instead of clarified butter.

Béchamel Sauces

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Mornay: Béchamel combined with Gruyère cheese and egg yolks.

Crème: Béchamel with heavy cream and lemon juice.

Soubise: Onions sweated in butter and added to Béchamel.

Smitane: Classically but no longer made from Béchamel. Chopped onions sweated in butter, moistened with white wine and reduced; sour cream added.

 

French White Sauces

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Supréme: Chicken velouté combined with cream and seasoned.

Ivoire: Sauce Supreme combined with meat glaze.

Albufera: Sauce Ivoire mounted with pimento butter.

Chaud-Froid: Chicken Velouté combined with cream and gelatin.

Bercy: Shallots combined with white wine and reduced with fumet; added to a fish Velouté, finished with chopped parsley.

Aurore: Fish Velouté combined with tomato coulis.

Bretonne: Julienned leeks, celery, onions and mushrooms cooked à l’etuvé, deglazed with white wine and reduced; added to fish Velouté.  Finished with heavy cream or creme fraiche.

Chaud-Froid: Bound Fish Velouté combined with heavy cream and gelatin.

French Brown Sauces

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Espagnole: Basic brown sauce, Beef Stock and roux brun.

Demi-Glacé: Basic brown sauce reduced by one-half.

Bordelaise: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, thyme, bay leaf and red wine combined with a basic brown stock.

Moëlle: Sauce bordelaise Made with white wine and finished with parsley.

Robert: Reduction Of ciselé onions and white wine combined with thickened Veal stock and tomato paste, mounted with Dijon mustard.

Charcuterie: Sauce Robert with cornichon julienne.

Chasseur: Sautéed mushrooms and shallots flambéed with cognac, deglazed with white wine and combined with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé, finished with a bit of tomato, tarragon and chervil.

Diable: Reduction Of cisele shallots, peppercorns, white wine and white wine vinegar added to a brown stock basic sauce, finished with chervil and tarragon.

Bercy: Reduction Of shallots, peppercorns, bay leaf, thyme and white wine with thickened Veal stock or Demi-glacé.  Finished with parsley or tarragon.

Madere: Reduced Madeira wine combined with Demi-glacé, mounted with butter and seasoned.

Financier: Sauce Madere with truffle juice.

Perigueux: Sauce Madere with truffle juice and chopped truffles.

Piquante: Reduction Of shallots, white wine, and white wine vinegar combined with Demi-glacé or thickened Veal stock; finished with sliced cornichons, parsley, chervil and tarragon.

Milanese: Sautéed mushrooms julienne, hamand tongue, deglazed with Madeira; reduced and combined with thickened Veal stock.

Poivrade: Mirepoix Of carrots, onions, thyme, parsley and bay leaves sautéed and deglazed with vinegar. Reduced to a glaze.  Singer combined with brown game stock; cooked one hour with peppercorns and then strained.

Chevreuil: Sauce Poivrade combined with red wine and reduced; finished with cayenne pepper.

Diane: Strongly flavored Poivrade combined with whipped cream.

Grand Veneur: Five parts Poivrade to one part currant jelly and one part heavy cream.

Stocks & Sauces Terminology

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Bouquet Garni: Fresh thyme, parsley stems, bay leaf, a few peppercorns tied together in leek greens.

Deglaze ( Déglacer): To loosen sucs from the bottom of a roasting pan using liquid: water, stock, vinegar, wine or juice.

Dégorger: To soak bones to remove blood to help produce a clearer, cleaner stock.

Degrease (Dégraisser): To remove grease from the top of a stock or sauce with a ladle or metal spoon.

Mirepoix: Equal parts of onions and carrots uniformly Cut, or 50% onions, 25% carrots, 25% celery or equal parts onions, carrots and celery.

Moisten (Mouiller): To Add water to bones and aromatics to produce a stock.

Mother Sauce (Sauce Mères): Group Of basic sauces of the Classical French repertoire.

Mount, to (Monter): Swirl in butter or other emulsifying agent to enrich the flavor and texture, gives a glossy finish.

Pass (Passer): To strain or pass a stock through a chinois.

Plug (Tamponner): To dot the top of a sauce with butter to prevent the formation of a film.

Reduce (Réduir): To boil a stock or sauce until the volume is reduced.

Remoisten (Remouillage): To Add water to cooked bones to extract their maximum flavor.

Roast (Rôtir): To cook in direct, radiant heat in the dry atmosphere of a preheated oven.

Simmer (Frémir): To cook gently so bubbles just break the surface.

Skim (écumer): To remove coagulated blood and impurities from a stock through skimming them off the top with a ladle or skimmer.

Sucs: Caramelized proteins that form on the bottom of a pan as ingredients are browned.

Sweat (Suer): To cook vegetables in a small amount of fat so that the ingredients cook in their own juices without taking on any color.

Winnow (Vanner): To stir a stock or sauce, either while it is cooking or in an ice bath, to facilitate cooking or cooling.

French Cheese Organization

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Fresh cheeses – Like fromage frais, cheese curds that can be either chunky or smooth.  Cheeses that are just a few days old.

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Soft, bloomy rind cheeses – Like Camembert, Brie, Coulommiers, and Neufchâtel. These cheeses are somewhat elastic, ranging from firm when they are unripened, to tender when they are fully ripened. These cheeses take on an aroma of ammonia when they are overripe.

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Soft, washed-rind cheese – Like Livarot, Maroilles, Pont l’Évêque, and Époisses, these cheeses are washed with anything from naturally colored brine to beer, wine, or even tea. The longer these cheeses are aged, the more intense their aroma.

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Pressed cheeses – Uncooked and cooked, St. Nectaire, Cantal, Salers, Laguiole, and Morbier are among the uncooked pressed cheeses.

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Blue or “parsleyed” cheeses – These cheeses can be made with cow, sheep, or goat milk. Penicillium is injected into them.

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Cooked, pressed cheeses – These are mountain cheeses that can age for up to many years. The milk is heated, then curdled and pressed into a mold. Once out of the mold they are salted, sometimes by being floated in a salt brine, then carefully aged. Comté, Beaufort, Gruyère, Abondance, and Emmenthal are all members of this family of cheese.

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Goat cheese – These are small cheeses, because goats give up to just two liters of milk per day. They range from very soft and wet to elastic and creamy to extremely hard. They offer a wide panoply of flavors, and those that have aged to a firm hardness can be used in place of Parmigiano Reggiano.

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Fromage fondu – These aren’t really cheeses, but a cheese product made from melted cheese and other ingredients, including whey, powdered milk, and other substances. These are low-priced dairy products, and often used industrially. They count, however, as a family of cheese.

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Red Wine Mustard

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4 ounces Black mustard seeds
¾ cup Full bodied red wine
¾ cup Red wine vinegar
1 Shallot, finely chopped
1 teaspoon Salt
Freshly ground black pepper to taste
Thyme, marjoram, tarragon chopped to taste

Combine all the ingredients in a stainless-steel bowl, cover with plastic wrap, and refrigerate overnight.

Purée the mixture in a blender until it attains the desired thickness and texture. Store in the refrigerator in a jar with a tight-fitting lid.

Restaurant French Cooking Vessels

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Materials:

  • Copper: Most even heat conductor.
  • Aluminum: Excellent heat conductor.
  • Cast Iron: Extremely strong and heavy metal used for Dutch ovens, griddles, frying pans, and skillets.  Relatively inexpensive and long lasting.
  • Black Steel: Inexpensive and heat conducts quickly. Often used for frying pans, crepe pans, and woks.
  • Stainless Steel: Excellent non-reactivate metal, but extremely poor heat conductor.
  • Enamelware: Inexpensive, but a poor heat conductor and food tends to stick.
  • Nonstick: Useful, however the coating tends to wear off quickly.

Batterie de Cuisine (Pots and Pans):

  • Marmite: A stockpot 2.5 – 40 gallons
    • Marmite Haute: Tall
    • Marmite Basse: Shorter
  • Poêle: Shallow Pan used for cooking omelettes, crepes, and potatoes. American version is a cast iron skillet.
  • Rondeau: Large round pan with handles, used for braising and stewing.  5 – 6 inches deep.  12 – 20 Quarts.
  • Rôtissoire: Large rectangular pan with low to medium high sides and two handles used for roasting meats.
  • Russe: Saucepan with a single long handle.
  • Sauteuse: Round, shallow pan with a single long handle and sloping sides used for sauté.
  • Sautoir or Plat a Sauter: Large, round, shallow pan with a single long handle and straight sides that is used to sauté or make sauces.
  • Sheet Pan: Rectangular pan with shallow sides.
    • Full Sheet Pan: 18 x 26.
    • Half Sheet Pan: 18 x 13.
  • Hotel Pan: Rectangular stainless steel pan with a lip designed to rest in a steam table or rack. Used to cook, ice, store or serve foods.
    • Full Hotel Pan: 12 3/4 x 20 3/4, 2, 4, or 6 inches deep.
    • Half Hotel Pan: 1/2 the size of a Full.
    • Third Hotel Pan: 1/3 the size of a Full.
    • Fourth Hotel Pan: 1/4 the size of a Full.
  • Square Boys: Also known as steam table pans. 6 7/8 x 6 1/4.  2 1/2, 4 or 6 inches deep.
  • Sizzle Pans: Oval platters with raised edges used to cook or finish items in the oven or salamander. 9 – 13 1/2 inches.

Cooking Method: Dans un Blanc

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Definition: Cooking in a water, flour, oil, lemon, salt solution for ingredients that easily discolor such as artichokes, salsify, offal and Veal.

  • 2 Quarts, 4 ounces (2 liters)
  • 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) canola oil
  • 1 tablespoon (15 milliliters) fresh lemon juice
  • 3/4 ounce (21 grams) all-purpose flour
  • 1/3 ounce (10 grams) coarse salt

In this example we are cooking four artichokes or 2 pounds of salsify, offal or Veal.

Combine water, oil, lemon juice in a saucepan over medium heat.  Whisk in flour and salt.  Add ingredient to be cooked.  Over high heat bring to a boil. Lower heat slightly. Cook at low boil for 30 minutes.  Remove from heat.  Allow item to stand in liquid one hour.