Glazes (Glaces)

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Glazes (Glaces)

  • Strained stocks reduced to 1/10 their original volume to reach a syrupy consistency and extreme depth of flavor,
  • Reinforce the character of a sauce.
  • Add nuance to a sauce.
  • Serve as a sauce with added butter and cream, particular fish glaze.
  • Meat glaze: glacé de viande.
  • Poultry glaze: glacé de volaille.
  • Game glaze: glacé de gibier.
  • Fish glaze: glacé de Poisson.

Brown Stocks (Fonds Bruns)

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Brown Stocks (Fonds Bruns)

  • Preheat oven.
  • Clean and, if necessary, break bones.
  • Brown bones in roasting pan in oven.
  • Add mirepoix.
  • Transfer bones and mirepoix to stockpot.
  • Remove fat from roasting pan.
  • Deglaze sucs.
  • Cover browned ingredients with cold water.
  • Simmer and skim.
  • Add bouquet garni and tomatoes.
  • Simmer, skim and defat frequently
    • Chicken stock: 4 hours
    • Veal & game Stock: 6-8 hours.
    • Beef Stock: 8-12 hours.
  • Drain through fine chinois.
  • Discard solids.

Brown Veal Stock (Fond de Veau Brun)

  • Roasted Veal bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Celery.
  • Onions.
  • Tomatoes.
  • Tomato paste.
  • Garlic
  • Bouquet garni.

Brown Beef and Veal Stock (Braisiere)

  • Roasted Beef and Veal bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Onions.
  • Celery.
  • Tomatoes.
  • Tomato paste.
  • Garlic.
  • Bouquet garni.

Brown Game Stock (Fond de Gibier)

  • Roasted game bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Celery.
  • Onions.
  • Tomatoes.
  • Tomato paste.
  • Garlic.
  • Bouquet garni.

White Stocks (Fonds Blances) & Fumets

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White Stocks (Fonds Blancs)

  • Clean and degorge bones.
  • Blanch and drain bones.
  • Cover bones with cold water.
  • Bring to a simmer and skim.
  • Add mirepoix and bouquet garni.
  • Simmer and skim frequently.
    • Chicken Stock: 2 hours.
    • Veal Stock: 4-6 hours.
  • Drain through fine chinois.
  • Discard solids.

Fumets

  • Cleand and degorge bones.
  • Sweat vegetables.
  • Add bones and continue to sweat.
  • Cover with cold water.
  • Add bouquet garni.
  • Simmer and skim frequently for 30 minutes.
  • Drain through fine chinois.
  • Discard solids.

White Veal Stock (Fond de Veau Blanc)

  • Blanched Veal bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Onions.
  • Leeks.
  • Celery.
  • Bouquet Garni.

White Chicken Stock (Fond de Volaille Blanc)

  • Blanched chicken bones.
  • Carrots.
  • Onions.
  • Leeks.
  • Celery.
  • Bouquet Garni.

Fish Stock (Fumet de Poisson)

  • Fish bones.
  • Onions.
  • Leeks.
  • Bouquet garni.

Guidelines For Stock Preparation

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Guidelines for Stock Preparation 

  • Use the highest quality ingredients.
  • Trim excess fat from meat and bones.
  • Always blanch Beef and Veal bones when making White stocks.
  • Never blanch fish bones when making a fumet, wash only.
  • Begin cooking process with cold water.
  • The higher the ratio of solids to liquids, more intense the flavor.
  • Simmer stocks slowly and uncovered.
  • Never allow a stock to boil, it will become cloudy.
  • Do not stir from the bottom, it will become cloudy.
  • Skim and degrease frequently, always use a clean ladel
  • Taste throughout the cooking process.
  • Stop the cooking process when the ingredients have released their maximum flavor.
  • Stocks should be poured out carefully through a chinois.
  • Stocks should be cooled quickly in an ice bath.
  • A properly prepared stock will be bright and clear.

Liaisons: The Binding Agents

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A Gumbo Roux

Liaisons thicken a liquid in order to add body and thickness.

Basic Stock + Binding Agent = Basic Sauce

Roux: Made by cooking together flour and fat (typically butter) usually in equal portions.

  • Fat is melted
  • Flour is added and cooked
  • Roux Blanc —> 3-5 minutes, pale sauce
  • Roux Blond —> 6-7 minutes, golden sauce
  • Roux Brun —> 8-12 minutes, rich brown sauce

Beurre Manié: Softened Butter kneaded into flour

  • Pea size amounts whisked into sauce
  • Mixture is never brought to a boil
  • Only a small amount is used

Singer: Dry flour is sprinkled into a sauce

Slurry: Whisking Potato starch, cornstarch, arrowroot, or Rice flour into a cold liquid to be dissolved.

  • Poured into boiling liquid in a slow stream.
  • Whisk constantly until thickened.

Double Cream: 

  • Simmered and reduced by half
  • Do not reduce further or it will break.
  • Whish into a hot liquid.

Mustard:

  • French Dijon has a slight thickening effect.
  • Beaten into the sauce off heat.
  • Sauce must not be boiled again or it will break.

Egg Yolks:

  • Temper egg yolk —> whisk a small amount of hot liquid into yolks to prevent from scrambling when added to sauce.
  • Whisk vigorously as you add to hot sauce.

Tapioca:

  • Pearl tapioca will add consistency to a sauce.
  • If left to sit the thickening will continue.

Butter:

  • Used to finish a sauce and create a silky velvet like thickness.
  • Not a primary thickener.

French Stocks (Fonds)

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Fonds, or stocks, are the starting point for many sauces, it’s critical that stock quality be the absolute best possible (in flavor and color), especially when reduced.

Brown stock—made with browned beef or veal bones and classic vegetable aromatics (classically, onion, leek, carrots, and celery).

White veal stock—prepared with veal bones and classic vegetable aromatics, but the bones and vegetables are not browned.

Chicken stock—made with skin-on chicken meat, chicken bones, and classic vegetable aromatics.

Vegetable stock—typically made with classic vegetable aromatics and sometimes leftover bits of other mild vegetables, such as mushrooms.

Fumet—fish stock made with fish bones, heads, tails, and classic vegetable aromatics, except the carrots.

Court-bouillon—a quickly cooked broth prepared with classic vegetable aromatics that serves as a poaching liquid for meat or fish.

Demi-glace—any kind of stock—white or brown, typically using veal, chicken, pork, or beef—reduced down to a glaze (about 20 percent of its original volume) and later reconstituted in various sauces.

Glace de crustace—or crustacean stock, made with crustacean shells, such as shrimp, crab, lobster, or crayfish that is cooked with classic vegetable aromatics and cooked down to a glaze (about 20 percent of its original volume).

Simple Quick Traditional Dashi

One 3 x 6 inch piece of konbu

8 cups of water

2 handfuls of katsuo-bushi

Rinse the konbu.  Combine it with water in a saucepan.  Bring water to a simmer.  Turn off stove.  Steep for 10 minutes.

Remove the pan from heat.  Add the katsuo-bushi.  Cover and let steep for 7 minutes.

Strain the dashi through cheesecloth.